- Observe that energy assumes a minimum for
**F**=**G**=**L**=**R**= and

where . This is called*spontaneous symmetry breaking*, a phenomenon known from the theory of magnetism, for example. - Expanding
around that point and
plugging it into
generates the following fields:

Field
itself becomes associated with
a field
of mass
.
This is called the Higgs
field and still awaits an experimental discovery. All other
fields,
**W**,
**Z**,
**A**,
**e** and
have been already
discovered.

Recent Kamiokande measurements indicate that has mass.

All these results are *classical*, i.e., the Salam-Weinberg-Glashow
equations are treated like classical fields in all those symmetry breaking
calculations. Quantum interpretations (i.e., particles) are then squeezed
from classical results upon a certain amount of handwaving.